Erysimum cuspidatum (Bieb.) DC.
Not protected species in Bulgaria.
Biennial, in first year forming partly woody basal stock, in second year with I - 4 stems. Stem simple (20) 30 - 70 cm tall in flower, up to 100 cm in fruit, with dense 2-fid, few 3-fid and very few 4-fid hairs, in the upper part angled, with a basal rosette often remaining until anthesis and (5 -)15 - 30 cauline laeves, with vegetative short shoots in upper leaf axils; both rosette and lower cauline leaves withered in fruit; tunic absent or inconspicuous, of broad leaf bases. Leaves 15 - 80 x 4 - 20 mm, basal ones petiolate, spathulate to narrowly obovate, entire to conspicuously dentate, obtuse, middle and upper ones gradually smaller, sessile, ovate-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, denticulate to deeply dentate, acute, more or less auriculate and clasping, with many 3- to 4-fid, very few 2-fid and few 5-fid to 6-fid hairs, some 3- to 4-fid hairs conspicuously larger than the rest. Inflorescence occupying the upper 1/3-1/2 of the stem, with 2 - 8 (- 12) erect branches from an erecto-patent base, each with several well-developed leaves and often secondary branches, conspicuously elongating in fruit; racemes mostly 10 - 35 (-60) flowered. Pedicels 1 - 2 mm in flower, up to 3 (- 4) mm in fruit, thinner than the siliqua, with many 3-fid, few 2-fid and very few 4-fid hairs. Flowers deep yellow, not fragrant or in some mountainous populations conspicuously fragrant; sepals 5 - 7 x 1-1.3 mm, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, with many 3-fid, some 4-fid, few 2-fid and 5-fid hairs. Petals 9 - 12 (- 13) x 1.8 - 3 (- 4) mm, cuneate, pubescent outside with mixed 3- and 4-fid and few 2-fid and 5-fid hairs. Stamens with some 3- and 4-fid, few 5-fid and very few 2-fid and 6-fid hairs. Siliquae 10 - 24 (- 30) x 2 - 3 (- 3.5) mm, laterally compressed, winged on the subglabrous margins, with many 4- and 5-fid, few 3-, 6- and 7-fid hairs, angle between the axis of the raceme and the pedicel 0° - 10°; style (3 -) 4 - 6 (- 10) mm, thinner than siliqua, with many 4-fid, some 3- and 5-fid and few 6-fid hairs, stigma capitate, slightly retuse. Seeds 1 - 1.2 (- 1.5) x 0.5 - 0.6 mm, ovoid-lenticular, light-brown. Pollen grains: P = 22.5 - 23.4 \xm, E = 22.5 - 23.2 um. 2n = 16 + 0-2 B; x = 81.
In dry, mostly limestone terrains, along forest margins, roadsides and rail embankments, by field margins and grazed fields, on shallow and undeveloped humus-carbonate soils, in the hilly planes and mountains in the oak vegetation belt, seldom in gravely meadows in the coniferous belt2.
Scattered all over the country, from the sea level up to 1000 (- 1900) m (Fig. 11). SE Europe (Balkan Peninsula), Romania3.
SE Europe (Balkan Peninsula), Romania, S Ukraine (eastwards of Volga), SW Asia, Caucasus, Iran4.
1 Ančev, M. & Polatschek, A. 2006. The genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) in Bulgaria. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B, 107: 227-273.
2 Ančev, M. & Polatschek, A. 2006. The genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) in Bulgaria. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B, 107: 227-273.
3 Ančev, M. & Polatschek, A. 2006. The genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) in Bulgaria. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B, 107: 227-273.
4 Ančev, M. & Polatschek, A. 2006. The genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) in Bulgaria. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B, 107: 227-273.
The theory of evolution is a lie!
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