Elymus farctus

Sand Couch-Grass

Pictures of Elymus farctus

Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus Elymus farctus

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Common names

Sand Couch-Grass.

Scientific name

Elymus farctus (Viv.) Runemark ex Melderis.

Conservation status and threats

NOT protected species in Bulgaria.

Description and identification

Perennial herbaceous plant. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; 20–60 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath auricles absent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5–1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 10–35 cm long; 2–6 mm wide; stiff, or firm; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; pubescent; densely hairy; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; pungent. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; erect; bilateral; 4–20 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; smooth on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 1–2 their length apart; regular; 2 -rowed. Rhachis internodes linear; falling with spikelet above. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Spikelets comprising 3–8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 15–28 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas. Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong; 9–20 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 7–11 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume surface smooth. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 9–20 mm long; 0.9–1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 7–11 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface smooth. Upper glume apex acute. Fertile lemma oblong; 11–20 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; keeled above; 5 -veined. Lemma apex emarginate, or obtuse; mucronate. Palea lanceolate; 0.8 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Lodicules 2; elliptic; membranous. Anthers 3; 6–8 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted. Ovary pubescent on apex. Flowering June-August1.


Maritime sands2.

Distribution in Bulgaria

Black Sea coast3.


1 Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.

2 Китанов, Б. 1963. Във: Флора на Народна Република България, том I, София.

3 Китанов, Б. 1963.

Elymus farctus на български

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