THE BULGARIAN FLORA ONLINE

Carpinus betulus

Hornbeam

Pictures of Carpinus betulus

Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus Carpinus betulus

(Click on the pictures to see them in larger size)


Common names

Hornbeam, Common hornbeam.


Scientific name

Carpinus betulus L.


Conservation status and threats

NOT protected species in Bulgaria.


Description and identification

The Common hornbeam is a smallmedium sized deciduous tree normally reaching heights of 20-25 metres1-3, although in old growth forests heights can exceed 30 metres. The crown is irregular, ovoid or conic, becoming domed in old trees. The bark is smooth and steel grey, having a muscled character to its appearance6. The leaves are alternate, simple, obovate, with serrated margins, 8-10 cm long, opaque to dull green, with prominent parallel veins. They are quite similar to those of the beech (Fagus sylvatica), but less shiny. Leaves do not drop in winter, but only in spring when the new green leaves are starting to come out (marcescence). The autumn colour ranges from yellowish-green to golden yellow. The hornbeam is monoecious: flowers are unisexual, borne in pendulous catkins. The male catkins are loose, up to 6 cm long, expanding in spring as yellow curtains2. The female catkins are up to 15 cm long and to 6 cm broad. Flowers blossom from March to April and are wind-pollinated. The fruits are clustered in about 8 pairs of nutlets (achene), 6-8 mm, each pair at the base of a green leathery tri-lobate bract, 3.5 cm long. The hornbeam is an abundant seeding tree and is marked by vigorous natural regeneration. Seeds often do not germinate until the spring of the second year after sowing[1].


Distribution in Bulgaria

The species is distributed throughout the country, between 0 and 1300 m altitude [Delipavlov & al., 2003].


General distribution

Map of general distribution of Carpinus betulus[2]:

Carpinus betulus



References

[1] Sikkema, R., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Carpinus betulus in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e01d8cf+.

[2] Sikkema, R., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Carpinus betulus in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e01d8cf+.


Carpinus betulus на български

The theory of evolution is a lie!


Abortion is murder!


© 2016 BGflora.net

ban